Jumat, 04 Januari 2013

Decision making (family)



Decision making  

              
A basic process that underlies all dunctions of family resource management. Essentially a process of evaluation in the choice or resolution of alternatives. Actions are preceded by some evaluation od decision-making process to resolve such questions as whether or not to act, why act, how to act, when to act, and where to act.
The content and functions for decision making vary throughout the management process. Function and content determine whether the decision relate to goal setting, planning, or management or in another context to environmental policy.
The decision-making process may be stated in various ways but generally contains these steps :
  1. Recognizing that a decision is needed.
  2. Identifying and weighing appropiate alternative, and
  3. Choosing among or resolving alternatives
Problem solving.
-          Identifying and defining the problem
-          Collecting informations about the problem
-          Innovating or producing alternatives
-          Choosing a course of action
-          Taking action
-          Evaluating consequences of an action
Certainly in decision-making.
Certainly is complete knowladge of consequences of decision and uncertainly is the lack of this Knowladge or unknown outcome probabilities. knowladge of the decision can come from experience, experimantation, a search for information or a combination of these approach.
                Risk is the hazard or chance of a loss “perceived risk is a function od uncertainy with regard to the economic, functional(performance), social and psychological ourcomes (or consequences) of decision and the importance of the decision to the decision maker”.
Choosing or resolving . (available alternatives).
-          Perceived risk
                minimize expected risk (avoid unknown features without trial).
-          Perceived return
                maximize expected gain (emphasize performance or other desire features).
-          Net preceived return
-          Maximize expected net benefit (choose the alternative with the most positive balance between perceived return and risk).
-          Information and experimental both contribute to clarifying the possible consequecesof alternatives.
-          Searching for information is best done when the problem is clearly defined and separated into parts so that the search can be directed to necessary areas.
Types of decision making.
       Consensual.
                                Consesnsual decision making involves comucation that includes with all family members fiving equal assent and feeling equally comitted to the decision.
       Accommodation.
                                Commitment to the decision may be conditional and that there is a dominant role of one member, specially the person whose desires were most closely followes in the decision.
       De facto.
Decision making approaches.
                A traditional decision-making approach and an individualistic decision-making approuch emerged from a study of families in washington state. Families using the traditional, decision-making approuch sought information, with minimal questioning of the reliability or relevance of the information. In the individualistic decision-making approach, trhe emphasis was on the individuals involved and how the decision would affect them.
Decision-making patterns.
                Traditional decision-making patterns in families have been described as “aspontaneus consensus”, with no decisions being made about the husband’s or the wife’s chief life interest.
                Traditional decision-making approach focuses on the task to be solved and the individualistic decision-making approch emphasizes the involvement and effect of decision making on individuals.

Summary.
                Action are precededby some evaluation or decision-making process to resolve such questions as whether or not to act, why act, how to act, when to act, and where to act.
                Problem solving is an extension of decision making into the action stage. Types of decision making are interrelated with communication: the consensual,accommodation, and de factostyles are applicable in the family system and probably in any small group.
                The traditional decision-making approach focuses on the lack to be solved and individualistic decision-making approach emphasizes the involvement and effect of decision-making on individuals.
                patterns of decision making in husband-wife families have traditionally been along role lines-with major financial decisions made by the husband or jointly and more household operation decision made by wife. Changes are taking place today as roles shift.